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    Modified Radical Mastectomy(MRM) performed at Keshav Hospital Nagpur.Breast Cancer the most common cancer amongst females have a predictable recurrence rate.ER/ PR is recommended to assess the postoperative relapse rate & the need for hormonal therapy. MRM performed mainly on patients with diagnosed Infiltrating Duct carcinoma of breast. MRM is a surgical technique to remove the cancerous portion of breast. Patient may require Chemotherapy & radiation therapy post mastectomy. There are several types of mastectomy, including: Total (simple) mastectomy - the entire breast is removed, but muscles under the breast and lymph nodes are kept in place.Double mastectomy - both breasts are removed as a preventive measure; this is often used for high-risk patients who have specific genetic markers that make breast cancer more likely.Radical mastectomy - the entire breast, underarm lymph nodes, and chest wall muscles are removed.Modified radical mastectomy - the entire breast and underarm lymph nodes are removed, but the chest wall muscles are left intact.Skin-sparing mastectomy - the breast tissue and nipple are removed, but the skin is left to reconstruct the breast in the same operation.Nipple-sparing mastectomy - this relatively new procedure leaves the skin, nipple, and peripheral breast tissue intact. Many patients opt for breast-conserving surgery, although this is not always possible. These procedures include: Lumpectomy - a lumpectomy involves the removal of a tumor and surrounding tissue, and leaves the breasts largely intact; the procedure is typically used in conjunction with radiation therapy. Lumpectomies, however, are not suitable for all patients.Quadrantectomy - is a partial mastectomy that involves the removal of more breast tissue than a simpler lumpectomy, but which still spares the majority of the breast tissue.Skin-sparing mastectomies - these are newer mastectomy procedures that preserve breast skin, allowing for the reconstruction of a more natural looking breast. This may only be an option if there is no sign of cancer cells close to the skin. Some women have reconstructive breast surgery as part of the same procedure as the mastectomy or major lumpectomy, while others wait and have the option to undergo a second operation at a later date.
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    GIST tumor and Right Nephrectomy done at Keshav Hospital Nagpur Gastrointestinal stromal tumor usually arises from the stroma tissue of large intestine. The tumor was invading Right ureter & Hydronephrotic changes occurred in the kidneys. In preview of the same Plan of Right Nephrectomy was taken to avoid postoperative complications & relapse. Right kidney was thus removed & ureter is listed. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor  Description A gastrointestinal stromal tumor(GIST) is a type of tumor that occurs in the gastrointestinal tract, most commonly in the stomach or small intestine. The tumors are thought to grow from specialized cells found in the gastrointestinal tract called interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) or precursors to these cells. GISTs are usually found in adults between ages 40 and 70; rarely, children and young adults develop these tumors. The tumors can be cancerous (malignant) or noncancerous (benign). Small tumors may cause no signs or symptoms. However, some people with GISTs may experience pain or swelling in the abdomen, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, or weight loss. Sometimes, tumors cause bleeding, which may lead to low red blood cell counts (anemia) and, consequently, weakness and tiredness. Bleeding into the intestinal tract may cause black and tarry stools, and bleeding into the throat or stomach may cause vomiting of blood. Affected individuals with no family history of GIST typically have only one tumor (called a sporadic GIST). People with a family history of GISTs (called familial GISTs) often have multiple tumors and additional signs or symptoms, including noncancerous overgrowth (hyperplasia) of other cells in the gastrointestinal tract and patches of dark skin on various areas of the body. Some affected individuals have a skin condition called urticaria pigmentosa (also known as cutaneous mastocytosis), which is characterized by raised patches of brownish skin that sting or itch when touched. Kidney removal, or nephrectomy, is surgery to remove all or part of a kidney. It may involve: Part of one kidney removed (partial nephrectomy).All of one kidney removed (simple nephrectomy).Removal of one entire kidney, surrounding fat, and the adrenal gland (radical nephrectomy). In these cases, neighboring lymph nodes are sometimes removed. Description This surgery is done in the keshav hospital while you are asleep and pain-free (general anesthesia). The procedure can take 3 or more hours. Simple nephrectomy or open kidney removal: You will be lying on your side. Your surgeon will make an incision (cut) up to 12 inches or 30 centimeters (cm) long. This cut will be on your side, just below the ribs or right over the lowest ribs.Muscle, fat, and tissue are cut and moved. Your surgeon may need to remove a rib to do the procedure.The tube that carries urine from the kidney to the bladder (ureter) and blood vessels are cut away from the kidney. The kidney is then removed.Sometimes, just a part of the kidney may be removed (partial nephrectomy).The cut is then closed with stitches or staples. Radical nephrectomy or open kidney removal: surgeon will make a cut about 8 to 12 inches (20 to 30 cm) long. This cut will be on the front of your belly, just below your ribs. It may also be done through your side.Muscle, fat, and tissue are cut and moved. The tube that carries urine from the kidney to the bladder (ureter) and blood vessels are cut away from the kidney. The kidney is then removed.Your surgeon will also take out the surrounding fat, and sometimes the adrenal gland and some lymph nodes.The cut is then closed with stitches or staples. Laparoscopic kidney removal: surgeon will make 3 or 4 small cuts, most often no more than 1 inch (2.5 cm) each, in your belly and side. The surgeon will use tiny probes and a camera to do the surgery.Towards the end of the procedure, your surgeon will make one of the cuts larger (about 4 inches or 10 cm) to take out the kidney.The surgeon will cut the ureter, place a bag around the kidney, and pull it through the larger cut.This surgery may take longer than an open kidney removal. However, most people recover faster and feel less pain after this type of surgery when compared to the pain and recovery period following open surgery.
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